Modelization and Simulation of an Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle under Real Conditions
This paper presents a toolbox for the simulation of a zero emission urban hybrid bus, which combines batteries and fuel cells. This type of vehicle performs predefined routes with a certain frequency, then they are an ideal option to the replacement of combustion engines with renewable energy systems. The simulation of these vehicles can be made for different standard driving cycles (ECE-15, EUDC, NEDC, SFUDS) or for real routes from GPS device data. This will allow to consider the orography of the route, considering the slope that overcomes the vehicle at each time, generally this parameter is not included in other models, and it could become a determining factor for the applicability of these vehicles on certain specified routes. Moreover, this tool lets to study and to analyse other not easily quantifiable factors, such as the weather or peak-hour traffic. Finally, the performance of an urban hybrid bus was investigated to assess its theoretical range and the technical feasibility of zero-emission vehicles.
Keywords: Electric vehicle; Battery; Fuel cell; Hydrogen; Simulation