Rainfall in Bangladesh: Is Rainwater Harvesting a Sustainable Approach for Governing Rainwater?
Global environmental change affects the intensity and frequency of rainfall that increases the necessity for sustainable management of rainwater. It is more important for rain intensive country like Bangladesh otherwise it creates further problems like water logging, flood, soil erosion, and water borne diseases. Based on the survey of 80 rainwater harvesters in the Coastal Bangladesh in 2017, this paper evaluates whether rainwater harvesting is sustainable approach to govern rainwater or not by using social and ecological performance measures of Social Ecological System (SES) of Elinor Ostrom. This study found that rainwater harvesting does not affect environment, it is an acceptable approach in family and society, help to develop biodiversity condition, create resilience to climate change impact, improve equitable access to water, efficient use of rainwater, improve women performance regarding water supply to the family, contribute in achieving sustainable development goal, and do not overharvest of rainwater that could create environmental problem. Beyond these measures, it needs rainwater harvesting controlling mechanism like formal operation rule or policy to avoid overharvesting and ensure more sustainability in governing rainwater.
Keywords: Accountability; Biodiversity; Efficiency; Resilience; Equity; Global environmental change; Rainwater harvesting; Sustainable approach; Sustainable development goals; Sustainable management of rainwater